- This is a great effort but…
- You did fine but…
- Do you think that you can make some changes next time?
- I think it might be better if you’d…
- As a friend, I think I should tell you…
A: What do you think of my presentation?
B: Everything looked great, but you might want to think through the presentation next time.
A: What’s wrong with it?
B: I think it’s too flashy for a serious topic. As a friend, I think I should tell you to try to modify it a bit.
A: Thanks. I appreciate your concern.
- I (personally) think/believe/feel…
- Personally, I believe/think/feel…
- I honestly feel…
- In my (personal) opinion/view…
- I imagine/suppose/reckon…
- Do know what I think? I think…
- As I see it…
- The way I look at it/see it…
- It appears/seems to me…
- To my mind…
- If you ask me…
- I’d say that…
- As far as I can tell…
- Let me tell you…
- To the best of my knowledge…
- I’m pretty/quite sure that…
- I’m fairly certain that…
- It’s quite obvious that...
Expressing agreement with an opinion
- (Yes) it is, isn’t it?/ He does, doesn’t he?/ etc.
- Right/ All right// Yes you’re right.
- That’s (quite) right/true.
- Quite so.
- Of course.
- Yes/well I suppose so.
- I agree (entirely)./ I think so, too.
- I couldn’t agree more.
- That’s just exactly what I think/thought/ was thinking.
- That’s what I was going to say.
- You took the words out of my mouth!
- That’s a good point.
- So/neither do I/ Me too.
- (Oh) by the way…
- That reminds me (of)…
- Speaking about/of…/Talking of…
- Before I forget…
- Oh, there’s something else I wanted/meant to say…/ask you…
- This has got nothing to do with what we are talking about, but…
- I know this is changing the subject but…
- Changing the subject (for minute)…
Purpose: Develop strategies to ask for repetition in order to clarify meaning
- (I’m) sorry?/ (I) (beg your) pardon?
- (I’m) sorry, I didn’t hear /catch/get/understand the last part/the part about.../the last/first word.
- Sorry, what did you say?/ what was that again?
- What was that word/the first word/ his name/ the last sentence again?
- Would/Could you repeat/ what you said/ that name/ the last word, please?
- Could you repeat that for me, please?
- Would you mind repeating that?
- Sorry, can/could you say that again please?
- Sorry, can/could you repeat it more slowly?
- Sorry, would you mind speaking a bit slower?
- Sorry, can/could you repeat it more loudly?
- I’m sorry, I couldn’t/didn’t hear (what you said).
- I’m sorry, when/who/where/what time did you say?
- Sorry, did you say…?
- What?/ You what?/ When?/ Where?/ Who?/ What kind of…?
- Hang on/ Just a minute, say that again.
- I didn’t quite catch that.
Examples of Mismatches Between Teaching and Learning Styles
Liu Hong, a third-year English major in
Jenny, an American teacher from
Analyzing the Examples
The above statements are representative of serious mismatches between the learning styles of students and the teaching style of the instructor. In a class where such a mismatch occurs, the students tend to be bored and inattentive, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the course, and may conclude that they are not good at the subjects of the course and give up (Oxford et al, 1991). Instructors, confronted by low test grades, may become overtly critical of their students or begin to question their own competence as teachers, as exemplified by the Jenny's case above.
To reduce teacher-student style conflicts, some researchers in the area of learning styles advocate teaching and learning styles be matched (e.g. Griggs & Dunn, 1984; Smith & Renzulli, 1984; Charkins et al, 1985), especially in foreign language instruction (e.g. Oxford et al, 1991; Wallace & Oxford, 1992). Kumaravadivelu (1991:98) states that: "... the narrower the gap between teacher intention and learner interpretation, the greater are the chances of achieving desired learning outcomes". There are many indications (e.g. Van Lier, 1996; Breen, 1998) that bridging the gap between teachers' and learners' perceptions plays an important role in enabling students to maximize their classroom experience.
Purpose of this Article
This article describes ways to make this matching feasible in real-life classroom teaching in East Asian and comparable contexts. The assumption underlying the approach taken here is that the way we teach should be adapted to the way learners from a particular community learn. But before exploring how the teaching styles and learning styles can be matched, let us first examine traditional East Asian students' learning style preferences in dealing with language learning tasks.
Traditional East Asian Learning Styles
Traditionally, the teaching of EFL in most East Asian countries is dominated by a teacher-centered, book-centered, grammar-translation method and an emphasis on rote memory (Liu & Littlewood, 1997). These traditional language teaching approaches have resulted in a number of typical learning styles in East Asian countries, with introverted learning being one of them. In
The teacher-centered classroom teaching in
Perhaps the most popular East Asian learning styles originated from the traditional book-centered and grammar-translation method are analytic and field-independent. In most of reading classes, for instance, the students read new words aloud, imitating the teacher. The teacher explains the entire text sentence by sentence, analyzing many of the more difficult grammar structures, rhetoric, and style for the students, who listen, take notes, and answer questions. Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995) states that the Chinese, along with the Japanese, are often detail-and precision-oriented, showing some features of the analytic and field-independent styles. They have no trouble picking out significant detail from a welter of background items and prefer language learning strategies that involve dissecting and logically analyzing the given material, searching for contrasts, and finding cause-effect relationship.
Another characteristically East Asian learning style is visual learning. In an investigation of sensory learning preferences, Reid (1987) found that Korean, Chinese and Japanese students are all visual learners, with Korean students ranking the strongest. They like to read and obtain a great deal of visual stimulation. For them, lectures, conversations, and oral directions without any visual backup are very confusing and can be anxiety-producing. It is obvious that such visual learning style stems from a traditional classroom teaching in East Asia, where most teachers emphasize learning through reading and tend to pour a great deal of information on the blackboard. Students, on the other hand, sit in rows facing the blackboard and the teacher. Any production of the target language by students is in choral reading or in closely controlled teacher-students interaction (Song, 1995). Thus, the perceptual channels are strongly visual (text and blackboard), with most auditory input closely tied to the written.
Closely related to visual, concrete-sequential, analytic and field-independent styles are the thinking-oriented and reflective styles. According to Nelson (1995), Asian students are in general more overtly thinking-oriented than feeling oriented. They typically base judgment on logic and analysis rather than on feelings of others, the emotional climate and interpersonal values. Compared with American students, Japanese students, like most Asians, show greater reflection (Condon, 1984), as shown by the concern for precision and for not taking quick risk in conversation (Oxford et al, 1992). Quite typical is "the Japanese student who wants time to arrive at the correct answer and is uncomfortable when making guess" (Nelson, 1995:16). The Chinese students have also been identified to posses the same type of thinking orientation by
The final East Asian preferred learning style is concrete-sequential. Students with such a learning style are likely to follow the teacher's guidelines to the letter, to be focused on the present, and demand full information. They prefer language learning materials and techniques that involve combinations of sound, movement, sight, and touch and that can be applied in a concrete, sequential, linear manner. Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995) discovered that Chinese and Japanese are concrete-sequential learners, who use a variety of strategies such as memorization, planning, analysis, sequenced repetition, detailed outlines and lists, structured review and a search for perfection. Many Korean students also like following rules (Harshbarger et al, 1986), and this might be a sign of a concrete-sequential style.
It is worth noting that the generalizations made above about learning styles in
Matching Teaching Styles with Learning Styles
From the descriptions and scientifically observed data reviewed above, it is legitimate to conclude that there exist identifiable learning styles for most East Asian students. We can assume, therefore, that any native English speaker engaged in teaching English to East Asian students is likely to confront a teaching-learning style conflict. This is illustrated by the two examples cited at the very beginning of this paper and further confirmed by Reid's (1987) and Melton's (1990) studies. Such style differences between students and teachers consistently and negatively affect student grades (Wallace and Oxford, 1992). It is when students' learning styles are matched with appropriate approaches in teaching that their motivation, performances, and achievements will increase and be enhanced (Brown, 1994).
In what follows, I give examples of how teacher's teaching style can be matched with students' learning style in East Asian settings. I obtained these ideas from several sources, including descriptions in books and published articles; responses to a recent questionnaire I sent to selected overseas students from
- Diagnosing learning styles and developing self-aware EFL learners
- Altering the teaching style to create teacher-student style matching
- Encouraging changes in students' behavior and fostering guided style-stretching
- Providing activities with different groupings
Diagnosing Learning Styles and Developing Self-aware EFL Learners
Effective matching between teaching style and learning style can only be achieved when teachers are, first of all, aware of their learners' needs, capacities, potentials and learning style preferences in meeting these needs. To this end, teachers may use assessment instruments such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indications Survey (Myers and McCaulley, 1985), the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (Keirsey & Bates, 1984) and the Classroom Work Style Survey (Kinsella, 1996). These instruments are sensitive to the kinds of style differences that are affected by culture. Although this kind of assessment is not comprehensive, it does indicate students' preferences and provide constructive feedback about advantages and disadvantages of various styles.
Before a survey is administered, the teacher should give a mini-lecture, trying to:
- establish interest: what learning styles are
- define general terms: for example, survey, questionnaire, perceptual, tally
- discuss how learning styles are determined and used by students and teachers
- explain how to tally results of surveys
- persuade students of the benefits of identifying their learning styles
Following the lecture, the teacher can ask students to work in pairs to share notes from the mini-lecture. By doing this, they can expect to further clarify the concept of survey taking and have a more specific idea of what learning styles are. While the pair-work is in process, the teacher should be prepared to answer any questions that may arise. Then, students are ready to complete the questionnaire. If they have questions or need assistance, the teacher can mini-conference with them individually. Finally, students can start summarizing their individual style results in the survey.
The next step is for the teacher to organize a whole-class discussion of the style assessment results. The teacher can write the major learning styles on the blackboard and ask the students to write their names under their major styles in a list. Then, in a full-class discussion, everybody is aware that the class is indeed a mixture of styles and full of similarities and differences in learning style preferences. This discussion helps eliminate some of the potential of a teacher-student "style war" if the teacher talks about his or her own style during this time. I have found students are intensely interested in talking about their own style and the styles of their peers and teachers. When such style discussions are constructive, students' initial interest in self-awareness is rewarded and deepened.
Furthermore, based on these style assessment results, the teacher can build classroom community by asking students to find several other students whose major learning style matches their own, and sit in a group with those students. They follow instructions (written on the blackboard or on a transparence) to share their summarized results and analyze those results. This discussion often starts slowly, but it becomes increasingly animated as students discover similarities and differences. In addition, teachers can use the survey results to identify style patterns among various groups of students in their classes, which they should consider when designing learning tasks.
There are, however, dangers if learning assessment, diagnosis, and prescription are misused. We can, at least, list three shortcomings of existing self-assessment instruments: 1). The instruments are exclusive (i.e. they focus on certain variables); 2). the students may not self-report accurately; and 3). the students have adapted for so long that they may report on adapted preferences. In order to ensure a reliability of such learning style instruments, Doyle and Rutherford (1984) call for taking into account the nature of the learning tasks, the relationship between teacher and student, and other situational variables. Further, Reid (1987:102) warns: "Both teachers and students involved in identifying and using information on learning styles should proceed with caution and be aware that no single diagnostic instrument can solve all learning problems"
For all of these reasons, I recommend using diaries as a supplemental tool. By reflecting the processes that go on inside the writers' minds, they open up fields that are normally not accessible to researchers, and are thus able to provide an important complement to other research tools. Before students start keeping diaries, they should be issued with a set of guidelines about how to keep their diaries and what to look out for. Each student is asked to keep a journal of their reactions to the course, their teachers, their fellow students and any other factors which they consider are having an effort on their learning. Students are told to describe only those events which they think are of interest. Also to be included in the diary are the problems students have found in their encounter with the foreign language, and what they plan to do about it. The language in which these records have to be kept is not necessarily specified, but it is better for them to use the target language.
The diaries are collected in at regular intervals, photocopied and then returned immediately to the diarists. The students are assured that the material in their diaries will be treated in full confidentiality. For the analysis of these diaries, Bailey (1990) recommends a five-stage procedure, in which the researcher first edits the diary and then looks for recurring patterns and significant events.
Altering the Teaching Style to Create Teacher-student Style Matching
In all academic classrooms, no matter what the subject matter, there will be students with multiple learning styles and students with a variety of major, minor and negative learning styles. An effective means of accommodating these learning styles is for teachers to change their own styles and strategies and provide a variety of activities to meet the needs of different learning styles. Then all students will have at least some activities that appeal to them based on their learning styles, and they are more likely to be successful in these activities. Hinkelman and Pysock (1992), for example, have demonstrated the effectiveness of a multimedia methodology for vocabulary building with Japanese students. This approach is effective in tapping a variety of learning modalities. By consciously accommodating a range of learning styles in the classroom in this way, it is possible to encourage most students to become successful language learners.
In addition, EFL teachers in
Visual learning style preference
- Read resources for new information.
- Use handouts with activities.
- Keep journals of class activities to reinforce vocabulary or new information.
- Watch an action skit. Write narrative of events.
- Take notes on a lecture. Outline the notes to reinforce ideas and compare with others.
Analytic learning style preference
- Judge whether a sentence is meaningful. If the sentence is not meaningful, the student changes it so that it makes sense.
- Give students a list of related vocabulary words (such as a list of foods, animals, gifts, etc.) and ask them to rank these words according to their personal preferences.
- Give students questions to which two or three alternative answers are provided. Students' task is to choose one of the alternatives in answering each question.
- Ask students to express their opinions as to agree or disagree with a given statement. If they disagree, they reword the statement so that it represents their own ideas.
The prospect of altering language instruction to somehow accommodate different learning styles might seem forbidding to teachers. This reaction is understandable. Teaching styles are made up of methods and approaches with which teachers feel most comfortable; if they try to change to completely different approaches, they would be forced to work entirely with unfamiliar, awkward, and uncomfortable methods. Fortunately, teachers who wish to address a wide variety of learning styles need not make drastic changes in their instructional approach. Regular use of some the instructional techniques given below should suffice to cover some specified learning style categories in most East Asian countries.
- Make liberal use of visuals. Use photographs, drawings, sketches, and cartoons to illustrate and reinforce the meanings of vocabulary words. Show films, videotapes, and live dramatizations to illustrate lessons in text.
- Assign some repetitive drill exercises to provide practice in basic vocabulary and grammar, but don't overdo it.
- Do not fill every minute of class time lecturing and writing on the blackboard. Provide intervals for students to think about what they have been told; assign brief writing exercises.
- Provide explicit instruction in syntax and semantics to facilitate formal language learning and develop skill in written communication and interpretation.
Encouraging Changes in Students' Behavior and Fostering Guided Style-stretching
Learning style is a consistent way of functioning that reflects cultural behavior patterns and, like other behaviors influenced by cultural experiences, may be revised as a result of training or changes in learning experiences. Learning styles are thus "moderately strong habits rather than intractable biological attributes" (Reid, 1987:100). With a moderate training, Sub/unconscious styles can become conscious learning strategies. However, all these should be best done in an intentional way with guidance from the teacher. For example, an important aspect of instructional style for many Korean students might involve weaning them from rote repetition, slowly guiding them into real communication in authentic language situation. An effective instructional style for dealing with many Chinese students might include paying attention to the individual, creating a structured but somewhat informal classroom atmosphere to ease students out of their formality, introducing topics slowly, avoiding embarrassment, and being consistent.
The following are examples of teaching activities that guide East Asian students to alter their learning behaviors stretch their learning styles and enable them to improve their language performance.
- Groups of four or five learners are given cards, each with a word on it. Each person describes his word in the foreign language to the others in the group without actually using it. When all students have described their word successfully, the students take the first letter of each and see what new word the letters spell out. (Puzzle parts might also depict objects in a room; in this case, when all the words have been guessed, the group decides which room of the house has been described.)
- Class members are placed in pairs or in larger groups. Each student has a blank piece of paper. He listens to his partner or the group leader who has a picture to describe (the teacher can provide the picture or students can choose their own). As his partner describes the picture, the student tries to draw a rough duplicate according to the description he hears.
Providing Activities with Different Groupings
In a class made up of students with various learning styles and strategies, it is always helpful for the teacher to divide the students into groups by learning styles and give them activities based on their learning styles. This should appeal to them because they will enjoy them and be successful. For example, the group made up of the extroverted may need the chance to express some ideas orally in the presence of one or many class members. On the other hand, the group made up of the introverted may need some encouragement to share ideas aloud and may want the safety of jotting down a few notes first and perhaps sharing with one other person before being invited or expected to participate in a group discussion.
In addition to trying style-alike groups for greatest efficiency, the teacher can also use style-varied groups for generating greatest flexibility of styles and behaviors. Teachers should avoid grouping introverts with each other all the time. It is often helpful to include open students and closure-oriented students in the same group; the former will make learning livelier and more fun, while the latter will ensure that the task is done on time and in good order. But before students are divided into groups, they should be aware of the divisions and understand what they are doing and why they are doing it. Wu (1983) concludes that Chinese students usually respond well to activities when they realize what the purposes behind them are.
Finally, no matter how students are to be grouped, teachers should make a conscious effort to include various learning styles in daily lesson plan. One simple way to do this is to code the lesson plans so that a quick look at the completed plan shows if different learning styles have been included. Putting "A" or "V" beside activities that denote whether they are primarily appealing to the analytic learner or the visual learner will serve as a reminder that there is a need for mixture of both kinds of activities. Meanwhile, simply designating various parts of the lesson plan with letters (I for individual, P for pair, SG for small group, LG for large group) and other symbols reminds the teacher to pay attention to learning styles. The coding is not meant to be extra work for the teacher or to make classes seem artificial or unspontaneous. If the coding system is used on a regular basis, it becomes very natural to think in terms of being inclusive, or providing the setting and the activities by which all learners can find some portion of the class that particularly appeals to them.
In this article I have discussed the significance of matching teaching and learning styles in East Asian countries and provided some empirical evidence to indicate that East Asian students exhibit distinctive learning style characteristics. To understand and respect individual's diverse learning styles, I suggest that teachers employ instruments to identify students' learning styles and provide instructional alternatives to address their differences, and that teachers plan lessons to match students' learning styles while at the same time encouraging students to diversify their learning style preferences. By doing this we can assist our students in becoming more effective language learners.
[Rao Zhenhui ,
Asking for Clarification
- Could you clarify that?
- What do you mean (by that)?
- What are you trying to say?
- What was that again?
Clarifying your own ideas
- In other words, …
- What I mean is . . .
- What I'm trying to say is . . .
- What I wanted to say was . . .
- To clarify, …
Clarifying another's ideas
- You mean . . .
- What you mean is . . .
- What you're saying is . . .
- (I think) what she means is . . .
- What he's trying to say is . . .
- If I understand you, (you're saying that . . . )
- If I'm hearing you correctly, …
- So, you think (that) . . .
- So, your idea is …
Scope: Asking for and giving directions
Asking for Directions
- Where is (the) . . . ? (This is also used in asking about location.)
- How do you get to (the) . . . (from here)?
- How do I get to (the) . . . ?
- Can you tell me how to get to (the) . . . ?
- Can you give me directions to (the) . . . ?
- What's the best way to get to (the) . . . ?
- (First,) go down this street (for ____ blocks).
- (Then,) turn left/right at the traffic light.
- (After that,) go straight on _____ Street until you get to the ______.
- (When you get to the _____,) turn left/right again.
- (Then,) stay on_______Avenue for about _______ yards/meters.
- It's on your left, next to the __________. You can't miss it!
Vocabulary definition: Paraphrasing involves restating someone else's ideas in your own words.
There are several phrases that can be used to introduce paraphrasing:
- So . . . (rephrase the other person's ideas)
- In other words . . . (paraphrase)
- I understand. (You're saying that . . .)
- Oh. I see. (You want to say that . . . )
- I get it. (You mean . . .)
- So, what you mean is . . .
- Let me see if I understand you correctly. . .
- What I think you're saying is . . .
- If I'm hearing you correctly . . .
Scope: Conceding to make a point
Vocabulary definition: Conceding means to acknowledge or admit, usually reluctantly, someone's idea, to be true or just. (dictionary.com)
- I may be wrong, but . . .
- You might be right, but . . .
- You have a good point, but . . .
- You could say that, but . . .
- Correct me if I'm wrong, but . . .
- I don't mean to be rude, but . . .
- I hate to bring this up, but . . .
- I don't mean to be negative, but . . .
- This may sound strange, but . . .
- To begin with,...
- We need to discuss / determine/ find out...
- Let's start by (V ing)...
- We'll start by (V ing)...
- The problem/issue/question here is . . .
- The important thing (here) is . . .
- The main thing we need to discuss is . . .
- Let's look at . . .
- It looks like . . .
- It appears that . . .
Asking for input
- What do you think?
- How about you?
- How do you feel about that?
- Any ideas on that?
This article discusses some practical techniques that ESL/EFL teachers can use in teaching effective academic presentation skills. It is suggested that macro organization, micro organization, thesis and support, strategies to involve the audience, response to audience input, non-verbal communication, use of visual materials, and pacing should be taught explicitly to the students.
Being able to present oneself precisely and concisely is a key to success in one’s course of study. In what follows, I suggest some practical tips on academic presentation skills that are easy to use in teaching your ESL/EFL students.
The first step is teaching macro organization. The organization of an academic presentation should consist of purpose, objectives, outline, introduction, and conclusion. The purpose is a statement that suggests the general goal of the presentation. The objectives are the specific goals that you want to achieve by the end of a presentation. The outline refers to the different parts, sections or components in your presentation. As regards the introduction, you may teach your students to start off with a word origin, an interesting question, a definition of a term, an analogy, or even a personal experience. Concerning the conclusion, no new information should be introduced to this part; the conclusion only summarizes the key points of your talk. You can begin the conclusion using the phrases such as in a nutshell, the bottom line is…, what it boils down to is … or other similar phrases.
The second step is teaching micro organization which refers to textual coherence, transitions, and connections from one part to another. A student can try the following useful phrases to make a smooth transition, such as I am going to switch gears, let’s move on to the next part, next let’s look at…, or next, I am going to talk about… .
Thesis and Support
Next, you can go on to teach the idea of thesis and support in an academic presentation. Teach your students to present their ideas clearly with explanations and plenty of examples. Sometimes, analogies are useful means to help explain an idea.
Strategies to Involve the Audience
Teach your students to use a variety of strategies to engage the audience. Practical strategies to involve the audience are questions, comprehension checks, and tasks. Examples of questions are “Do you have any questions about this concept or this vocabulary that I just taught?” Always ask specific questions instead of general questions such as “Do you have any questions?” Comprehension checks are essential tools to involve your audience. Examples of comprehension checks are “Is everyone with me so far?”, “Is everyone on the same page?”, “Can you repeat the definition of X, in your own words?” Tasks are small exercise to check the audience’s understanding. The presenter can throw a question to the audience and encourage them to discuss it with the person sitting next to him/her for approximately thirty seconds to one minute. The audience will be asked to report their thoughts to the rest of the group.
Response to the Audience Input
If the answer from the audience is incorrect, the presenter can say good try or good guess. Never say the word wrong or incorrect to embarrass those who try hard enough to produce a response. If the answer from the audience is right, respond to them positively by saying very good, excellent, terrific. Many times, if your student presenters do not know the answer to the questions from the audience, your student presenter can say “I do not have an immediate answer to your question. I will look it up and get back to you, if you remind me.” It’s normal that you do not know everything in this world.
Gaze, facial expression, movement, and gesture are typical means of non-verbal communication. Most of my students lack movement during their presentation and many are frozen. Approach the audience especially when the audience ask questions. Especially to the students who have soft voices, it is strongly encouraged that they come closer to the audience to talk from time to time.
Use of Visual Materials
Nowadays, using PowerPoint is not uncommon in presentations. Still, it will be a good idea to supplement the talk with a handout containing key points of the presentation, pictures, or illustrations. Real objects are good tools to help your students present an idea efficiently.
Pacing means balancing the amount of information with the speed of presentation and the time allotted. Always rehearse the presentations as many times as possible. Always time yourself in the rehearsals. In actual presentation, the number of the questions from the audience is often unpredictable. Sometimes, you just cannot present all the materials you have prepared. Always present the more important information first. When you run out of time, you can cut those least important parts that follow.
Teaching students the techniques to deliver a well-organized, interesting presentation is not that difficult. Macro organization, micro organization, thesis and support, strategies to involve the audience, response to audience input, non-verbal communication, use of visual materials, and pacing should be taught explicitly to the students. If you follow this advice closely, you will see a significant improvement in your students’ macro- and micro- organization skills.